Since the introduction of pacemakers in the 1950s till date, technology has advanced so much that the first ones were
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest arrhythmia seen by cardiologists in day-to-day practice. Risk factors for AF include age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and smoking (1). Oral medications are commonly given to prevent clot formation and to control heart rate and rhythm. Other options include ablation, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), pacemaker, maze procedure, and bypass surgery. These patients are at a high risk of developing stroke. A study was carried out to investigate the role of anticoagulants after PVI was performed to treat atrial fibrillation.
Deaths due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular events have been a major concern for the medical community. It was known that arteries
Introduction Cardiac patients, undergoing a cardiac surgery like coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), aortic valve repair or replacement, tend to